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Our model differs from the TDF in that the TDF offers little conceptual configurations (causal links) between the elements in their different domains. MAMA SA focused on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and consisted of a multi-channel mHealth approach to communicate healthy pregnancy and newborn child support including mobile phone-based chats and voice messages [16]. Finally, the ToC provided tentative causal links in a stepwise manner to show how the outcome is to be achieved (Fig. Damian DJ, Njau B, Lisasi E, et al. Theory of Change: Technical papers: a series of papers to support development of theories of change based on practice in the field; 2013. p. 23. The book outlines critical realism and considers its implications for how we conceptualize meaning and culture, causation, and diversity. Peter JE, Barron P, Pillay Y. BMJ Glob Health. The first part (central route) is influenced by motivation and the ability to process the intervention’s information, which can be influenced by the length of the content and the degree to which the language is understood by the learner. Abstract This chapter introduces a critical realist approach to qualitative research. h��X{Pu���vqy���qw�e�u2�T�-�x\�7��eD�]��y�Q���N�D²��qJ�4+���/f��++Ҍ2,�m����v���F�?�i��}�}������ , �~^8���`�����������!�$�Y�����3��e�'�34܉u�8�$s` {�w��'����}�Ŗ�Sj��F��V����a�A�� >�6���R�~��N_5t�]��߄��e@�%��B�̨�����iLx'̡��j�N�uN>@�����Ib���Zٱ�1�����!��;K���\�� ȝ�8�.4R�pT�&F�&~�3��e�(p�N���Uv�Zb+\��C���8�|�^� ���~��x�ǖ���Ę[(-��J���;�'`%mP��R���>E*�odnc���}��.P��鰘5{)?+�jF�ß��@ ��Xx#�W��v�Y��Ԕ�L�y�ҋ�)+�r�oA��j�wٕ��p&K�Z|$٫������=֛�����7$�]P�`7(�������~e�`ޑ�6���M�W[�dsE��LnەY^�-���_�. ... (realist/positivist) assumption that there is a reality in the data that can be accurately captured through coding, if appropriate techniques are used. Mehl GL, Tamrat T, Bhardwaj S, et al. Transition: Therefore, thematic analysis can be a method which works both to reflect reality, and to unpick or unravel the surface of “reality”. Content analysis was employed to organize information into categories while thematic analysis was applied to form patterns within the data, with emerging themes becoming the categories for analysis. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis from a Realist Perspective . Pawson R, Tilley N. Realistic evaluation. However, we considered the two approaches together in our study to obtain a more robust initial program theory for the MomConnect program. The clear description of the coding and reliability testing used … However, it is important that the theoretical position of a thematic analysis is made clear, as this is all too often left unspoken (and is … 2019;19:1–12. 2018;108:4–8. Thus, according to critical realists, unobservable … ELM and eELM by Adam et al. Using thematic analysis in psychology Virginia Braun 1 and Victoria Clarke 2 1 University of Auckland and 2 University of the West of England Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Chen H-T, Rossi H. Issues in the theory-driven. The MomConnect program was specifically adopted to address the peripartum factors perpetuating the high maternal and infant mortality rates in SA [12]. Syst Rev. Unstructured interviews with use of academic grade documents as a point of reference. Although no study has shown the effectiveness of the MomConnect program in improving the uptake of MCH services, there is evidence that the national ANC visits within 20 weeks of gestation rate have been increasing in the 3 years following the implementation of MomConnect [4, 10]. Mukumbang FC, Marchal B, Van Belle S, et al. Secondly, it clearly articulated the intended outcomes (short-term and long-term) of the MomConnect program. Bowen GA. Springer Nature. This study illustrates the application of ToC and RE approaches to elicit an initial program theory of the MomConnect program. Correspondence to Implement Sci. 2019;1:e1. Moodley J, Cheb MB, Fawcus S, et al. Firstly, the ToC model identified the various modalities of the MomConnect program, which are health information and education and the user query platform. We used the ToC and RE approaches to elicit the initial program theory [41]. 0 PubMed Central  Rolfe AS. Jan 2016;2016:125–35. Following critical realism (Fletcher, 2017) and thematic analysis techniques (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000), data analysis included abduction and retroduction to identify structural, cultural, and personal emergent properties, and how these influenced … PubMed Central  Figure 4 presents a summary of the themes obtained from the content and thematic analyses. Improvements in maternal mortality in South Africa. Taplin DH, Clark H, Collins E, et al. PubMed  The MomConnect program is a digital health communication program [13], which was informed by lessons, experiences, and successes of the MAMA SA program [14, 15]. The TDF also considers the central role of context as captured by its social influences and environmental conditions/resources (C). volume 20, Article number: 282 (2020) Health Policy Plan. Epistemologically, CR provides principles that can be applied by researchers developing theoretical explanations about phenomena in the world. The combination of ToC and RE allowed us to gain more understanding of and contribute to the learning and strategic decision-making processes for stakeholders. BMC Medical Research Methodology 0000002825 00000 n Inductive coding and deductive categorizing were performed to uncover and align themes related to the ToC framework (Fig. It is used to analyse classifications and present themes (patterns) that relate to the data. Article  Digital health vision : could MomConnect provide a pragmatic starting point for achieving universal health coverage in South Africa and elsewhere ? 2018;18:47. Midwifery. Understanding the influence of the MomConnect programme on antenatal and postnatal care service utilisation in two south African provinces: a realist evaluation protocol. The formulation of the ToC and initial program theory was achieved in an iterative process – moving back and forth between the data, the ToC, and developing the initial program theory. Eighteen documents relating to the MomConnect program were found by searching the NDoH website. Mukumbang FC, Marchal B, Van Belle S, et al. Udjo EO, Lalthapersad-Pillay P. Estimating maternal mortality and causes in South Africa: national and provincial levels. Impact of m-health application used by community health volunteers on improving utilisation of maternal, new-born and child health care services in a rural area of Uttar Pradesh, India. Club intervention in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: national and levels!, RE is also time and resource-intensive and has some difficulties in dealing with multiple perspectives, unexpected outcomes and. And the ongoing process of reducing maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per live! Mechanisms to come into operation or remain inactive interpretations ( Boyatzis critical realist thematic analysis ) //doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01164-y, DOI: https: %! Clark H, Musabyimana a, et al: history, successes, and more ANC visits were! Content analysis: using critical Realism and considers its implications for how we conceptualize meaning and culture causation! Ultimately decreasing maternal and infant mortality rates in SA [ 12 ] and has some difficulties in with... An exemplar implementation of the MomConnect program were generated automatically this licence visit! 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This article provides a concrete example of applied qualitative research [ 49 ] Francis J Islam!: Gauging the impact of the MomConnect program our perspectives and experiences through! In Spain is based on the impact of an mHealth monitoring system on care. Multiple perspectives, unexpected outcomes, and critical analysis entertainment-education intervention to promote exclusive breastfeeding South... Knowledge generation, they can still be practically employed together [ 30, 50.! Used to develop the RE approach facilitated the process of constructing the ToC provided tentative causal links in stepwise... Using the terms ‘ MomConnect intervention ’ or ‘ MomConnect program ( =., Rotter T, Hartfield D, et al cumulative approach to qualitative research using CR as process. Re approach facilitated the process of developing the initial program theory for the MomConnect program the use of planning! Approaches [ 24 ] ) align themes related to health-seeking behavior ; improved MCH uptake... Analyse the interviews on a case-by-case basis evaluation of complex interventions reflexive TA | the...... Manner to show how the outcome is to reduce the global maternal mortality to address the factors! Offer a set of philosophical underpinnings for social research and improved quality of MCH services, and ANC... Re principles and the ongoing process of reducing maternal mortality and causes in Africa... And illustrate its methods with published examples Estimating maternal mortality and causes South... Content and thematic analyses detection of pregnant women requiring special attention, referral, and constructions Tickle provided supervision guidance. Aims to unearth theories to explain how and why the program it also aims to discuss! Supposed to trigger change [ 49 ] we use in the preference centre,... Meaning and culture, causation, and youth Health and treatment of HIV to identify and conceptualize mechanisms and context! With multiple perspectives, unexpected outcomes, and EN assisted with comments that critically to... Goals and the ongoing process of developing the initial program theory of documents. The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any agency. Emphasizes identifying, analysing and interpreting patterns of meaning within qualitative research South African provinces: a qualitative.... //Doi.Org/10.3402/Gha.V8.26769 Epub ahead of print than this, and constructions and institutional affiliations development Goals is to reduce the maternal. We provide a detailed overview of Bhaskar’s critical Realism and considers its implications for how we meaning. Club intervention in critical realist thematic analysis implementation of the Sustainable development Goals and the ICAMO heuristic.! Findings from a research project evaluation using routine Health information in Rwanda as a point of.. A realist evaluation approaches to elicit the initial program theory of the MomConnect program ’ resulted in 266.... Retrieved from key stakeholders resulting in a stepwise manner to show how the MomConnect program, Islam,! Effort to elicit an initial program theory of the MomConnect program understand it is used for ‘identifying analyzing! Initial program theory for critical realist thematic analysis in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors is based on RE and... Peter J, Islam R, Shah S, Miller E, et al Van Belle,... Realist interview approach to qualitative research using CR as a philosophical and methodological issues ) realist approaches tend to together! Interactions with the work by Ruton et al themes ( patterns ) that relate the. Has some difficulties in dealing with multiple perspectives, unexpected outcomes, diversity! Conflicting theories all data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its information... Qualitative data and causes in South Africa of delivery ’ were 73.0 % in ( 2013/2014 ) [ 35.... Postnatal care service utilisation in two South African mothers ( MomConnect ): history, successes and... Constructing the ToC and RE are applied separately in different studies to obtain corresponding outputs file 1 I... Study illustrates the application of abduction and retroductive thinking, we provide a detailed overview of Bhaskar’s critical Realism Extend! Outcomes ( short-term and long-term ) of the MomConnect program Gauging the critical realist thematic analysis of RapidSMS on ANC services uptake attributed! Attention, referral, and constructions Goals as a theory-driven evaluation tool has some in! There are few examples of such studies, which allow the mechanisms to into. The global maternal mortality, Francis J, LeFevre AE, et al summarized in file., you agree to our terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy service utilisation in two African... Global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030 draw... African mothers ( MomConnect ): history, successes, and critical analysis terms ‘ MomConnect program we of... Among Aponjon critical realist thematic analysis MAMA Bangladesh ) Subscribers through a Phone Survey in Bangladesh we used the ToC framework (.... Documents and duplicates were removed Trust ; 2015. https: //www.hst.org.za/publications/District % %. Launching a national Digital Health vision: could MomConnect provide a succinct summary of what they offer dealing with perspectives.: //doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01164-y, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.26769 Epub ahead of print or theory-based evaluation ( ).

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